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Are you Homosexual because of your Genes?


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October 27, 2016


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gay genesDo genes play a role in affecting the sexual orientation of person? This question was answered when results of two studies revealed that five markers attached to DNA can affect the sexual orientation of a person. However, the results of these studies have been disputed by several researchers. Andrew Gelman, who is a statistician at Columbia University in New York, claimed that the results of the study have been incorrectly presented. This criticism has been disputed by Tuck Ngun who is the co-author of one of the studies. However, he has admitted that the study was underpowered and added that he and his collaborators will soon issue a statement.

Background

The biology of sexual orientation of a person is one of the most hotly debated topics in human genetics. For the first time, studies have found a connection between markers attached to DNA and sexual orientation of a person. However, these markers can be influenced by external environment.

Studies

The studies provide strong evidence that genetics can have an impact on the sexual orientation of a person. For instance, when one identical twin is gay, there is a 20 percent chance that the other twin will also be gay. Since this rate is not 100 percent, it is assumed that environmental factors can have an impact on the sexual orientation of a person. An external factor that affects sexual orientation is the ‘Older Brother Effect’. It is believed that the chance of a man being gay increased by more than 30 percent for each older brother he has. Even though there are no studies to prove the existence of Older Brother Effect, many experts believe that this could be because of immune system reaction against male antigens which can affect foetus development.

To find out the link between genes and environment, geneticist Eric Viain conducted a study at University of California, Los Angeles. They studied the epi-genetic markers of the subject and tried to find the impact of the environment on these epi-markers. They collected DNA samples of 10 pairs of identical twins in which both were gay and 37 pairs in which only one twin was gay. When researchers scanned the epi-genomes of the gay twins, they found that 5 epi-markers were common among gays. Algorithm was developed based on these 5 epi-markers. This algo could correctly predict the sexual orientation of a person 67 percent of the time.

Limitations of this Study

Since this study took a small sample size of just 47 twins, the results of this study are likely to evaporate when test in a larger group. Another limitation of the study is that epigenetic markers present in the tissues of the body differ from those found in the brain. Since brain affects sexual orientation of person, researchers must study the epigenetic markers of the brain before coming to a conclusion

Critics of this study are of the view that just as genetic associations offer little insight into the sexual orientation of a person, little can be concluded from these epi-marks. These epi-marks are in regions that have not association with the gene of a person. For instance, one mark is associated with brain development, the second is located in the immune system, and the other 3 marks are in the areas that are not associated with any gene.

Most geneticists are of the view that genes have no impact on the sexual orientation of the person. Since, there are no ‘gay genes’, coming out with a conclusion that epi-marks affect the sexual orientation of the person may not be correct. The biggest study to find out the impact of genes on the sexual orientation of the person was conducted by Sanders. He took 409 pairs of gay brothers, including a few non-identical twins to find the effect of genes on sexual orientation of the person. They found that two areas of genome, namely chromosome 83 and X chromosome do impact the sexual orientation of a person. However, the exact impact of these chromosomes is yet to be determined.

Final Thoughts

Even thought the study conducted by Eric Viain is a step in the right direction, it is difficult to believe the findings of their study. There study appears incomplete and requires several changes before they can come to a definite conclusion. So do genes really affect the sexual orientation of person? We believe it does. However, there are limited studies to back our belief.

Plan to become an Aesthetician: Here is what you should know


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October 22, 2016


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aestheticiansWhat we love about aestheticians is that they are passionate about making people look good and confident about their appearance. They take care of your skin and give you facial treatment to enhance your physical attributes. They have a deep understanding of colors and makeup and know that cosmetic styles and kinds of shades to use for different occasion. For instance, they know that you cannot use day makeup for a formal evening occasion.

To become an aesthetician you have to get the required training in a reputed aesthetician school. The duration of your training in aesthetician school will depend on the number of training hours required by your state to sit in the licensing exam. You can attend this training program as a part-time of full-time student. Most states require you to attend at least 600 hours of aesthetician training. However, some states like Oregon only require 250 hours of training. Even though most states require just 600 hours of training, there are some states that require you to complete 1,500 hours of aesthetician training before you can sit for the exams. Based on the duration of training required, the aesthetician school can last from as short as 120 days to as long as 360 days.

If you are looking for aesthetician training Phoenix, you should check out the Skin and Make Up Institute. They are the only private aesthetics program in Phoenix AZ where students get hands on training to become professional makeup artist. The program helps the students understand the internal mechanism and the functioning of the skin. They also teach you various salon and spa techniques that prepare you for performing body and facial treatments. They also teach you clinical treatments to correct various skin disorders. All students are also required to write weekly test and mock state board test to insure the level of confidence required to pass the state board’s practical and written exams.

After completing your aesthetician training Phoenix, graduates of this program can take the licensing exam of their state. Students must pass this test to practice their profession. While some states just require the students to pass the written exam, other states may have an additional exam. This exam will test the practical skills of the students. Apart from practical and written tests, you may also be required to take an oral exam. To sit in these tests, you may be required to get a high school diploma.

When aestheticians start their journey, they have endless opportunities in their field. Initially, the aestheticians are eager to start their career and experience the fulfilment of their learning. As their careers progress, they will discover that they enjoy doing and may choose to pursue special courses in one area of their field. When deciding their career direction, they have several avenues that can be chosen. For instance, they can specialize in spa services, hair removal, or hydrotherapy. Most aestheticians enjoy working in cosmetic field and opt for makeup artistry. Working as makeup artist will require additional training that will broaden your career opportunities and also give you an opportunity as a freelance makeup artist.

Continuing Education

The main difference between advanced education and continuing educations is that continuing education may be mandatory in some states, while advanced education is not mandatory. Many states require aestheticians to complete a minimum number of hours of continuing education to maintain their licensure. If you are looking for a good continuing aestheticians training Phoenix, then you should check out Skin and Makeup Institute. After completing the 600 hours of training, students have the option to take up an additional course in aestheticians, spa training, or makeup artist training.

Advanced Education

These classes are designed for aestheticians who wish to improve their learning in their area of interest. At the end of the course, they received a certificate of achievement in their area of expertise. These certificates of achievements can be of great help in advancing your career. Also, these certificates improve your credibility as a licensed professional. The aesthetician must know that these programs are optional and it is not a necessity for job placement or recognition within the industry. Even though it is not mandatory to take up these advanced courses, it is always advisable to take these courses as it helps you in providing more services to your clients.